Crystal growth is the main stage of a crystallization process and occurs from the addition of new atoms, ions, or polymer strings into the lattice of a crystal. Occurring right after the nucleation stage of a crystallization process, growth takes place very quickly. Crystal growth spreads outwards from the nucleating site. They grow rapidly due to dislocations, which provide the necessary growth points that spread out the different points.
Single crystal growth begins with a wafer of semiconductor material, as this is the first step in creating any device. A seed crystal of the material that is being grown is placed on the surface of the melt and then drawn slowly upwards. As the seed crystal is pulled from the melt, a layer of molten material is drawn with it. When this material cools after a gradual process, it will take on the same crystalline lattice as the seed crystal from which it originated.
A common practice in crystal growing is to add a foreign substance, such as a string or a rock, to the solution. This provides a nucleating site for the project and accelerates the time it takes for the crystal to grow. Through this method, the number of nucleating sites can also be controlled. The best way to grow these crystals is through a container with few scratches. Also, by adding seed crystals to a crystal growing project, it will provide nucleating sites to the solution. Adding a single seed crystal will result in a larger single crystal.
These features are important to watch during crystal growth:
These crystals can be formed from a solution, melt, or even from a gas. Crystallization specifically is also a chemical solid-liquid separation technique where mass of a solute is transferred from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase.